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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial  |  Posted: Wed May 31, 2017 5:55 pm
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Ancestors by Val D Rust (2004)

FROM THE PREFACE:

As a historian, I was curious to see if the family histories of those first converts in my family were similar to the histories of others baptized into the church in the 1830s, and so I have spent several years tracing the genealogical records of 583 early LDS converts baptized between 1830, when the church was organized, and 1835 (about 40 percent of the early membership). What I discovered about the ancestors of these converts was surprising.

First, I found that they were a distinctive population in New York and in Ohio, where the Mormon church was first organized. Most people living in New York State in the early 1800s were born there and were from families that had been in the state for one or more generations. At that same time, the state of Ohio, in contrast, was being settled by migrants, who were more likely to have come from the Middle Atlantic and southern states than from New England. Early Mormon converts deviated from both these groups in that they had usually been born in New England and had migrated to New York or Ohio.

Second, I found that almost all early LDS converts were descended from forbears who had lived in New England for six or seven generations. In fact, I was able to identify more than 10,000 fifth-generation progenitors of these 583 early converts, representing at least 20 percent of the population of New England in the middle of the 1600s. Almost all of them were among the first generation of Europeans to live in New England.

Third, these ancestors lived mostly in the more religiously radical towns of New England. Of course, they were found in most settlements because they constituted such a large portion of the population, but they were greatly overrepresented in towns known for unusual religious beliefs and practices. Many of them had been ostracized and expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony, and some had been whipped, mutilated, and hanged for their religious beliefs. Others lived in New Hampshire and Rhode Island, regions of New England that were known for their unorthodox religious orientations. Some of them belonged to religious groups representing the radical segment of the Protestant Reformation, including Antinomians, Seekers, Anabaptists, Quakers, and the Family of Love.


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joseph's myth
Post  Post subject: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial  |  Posted: Thu Jun 01, 2017 4:43 am
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Ever been to Kirtland Ohio, ever been to the original temple Joseph Smith built? These are locations where you can be set right again, if you were to believe what The Community Of Christ claims. They're the group (renamed) that own the first Mormon Temple and then tried to right themselves after Joseph and most of the original LDS groups suddenly left town.

See if you can decide if Missouri and Ohio found a lot of New Englander's re-settling there!
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=52227&sid=e52b14d168c8bbe79473772e8a5f49c2#p130722

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God of Poly-Folly Folly

{If you believe in things that you don't understand, then you suffer ~Stevie Wonder}
.................. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekkkD8HU944
........................ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekkkD8HU944
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productofchoice
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Thu Jun 01, 2017 8:01 am
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What are you saying? That they were witches escaped from Salem that joined the Mormons for the help moving into a new house?

Double, Double, Toil and Trouble.
Fire Burn and Cauldron Bubble.

;-)

Peace

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I resigned from the Church of THE Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints (Feb 2011)

"For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be known and come abroad." - Luke 8:17


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joseph's myth
Post  Post subject: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial  |  Posted: Thu Jun 01, 2017 8:42 am
God of Poly-Folly

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productofchoice wrote:
What are you saying? That they were witches escaped from Salem that joined the Mormons for the help moving into a new house?

Double, Double, Toil and Trouble.
Fire Burn and Cauldron Bubble.

;-)

Peace

Have some respect, a little more graciousness may be in order. The warlocks do all of the heavy lifting. Witches double the use of their brooms when sweeping up. Gsheesh! And you wonder where the kids are gonna end up some day...

(((double- smirk)))

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God of Poly-Folly Folly

{If you believe in things that you don't understand, then you suffer ~Stevie Wonder}
.................. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekkkD8HU944
........................ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekkkD8HU944
.................. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekkkD8HU944


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Thu Jun 01, 2017 1:27 pm
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What the author is pointing out is that the early Mormon converts were not a bunch of dissatisfied Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, etc.

They were religious radicals that had been driven out of the communities they originally settled in. This was not a cross-section of Americana...they were outcasts. These outcasts found a voice in Joseph Smith.


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Abinadi
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Thu Jun 01, 2017 3:24 pm
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Thanks for that opening quote, pettifogger! I researched Hendrick Niclaes and his Family of Love for a course on Tudor history. One of those religions that was mostly forgotten - like the Morrisites - until modern researchers into current topics go off on a tangent and rediscover something unexpected. As much as the Morrisite saga demonstrated the cruelty of Brigham Young and his loyal followers, Niclaes' Family of Love demonstrate the numinous yearning for something truer and happier than mere politics and office.


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joseph's myth
Post  Post subject: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial  |  Posted: Fri Jun 02, 2017 4:40 am
God of Poly-Folly

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Never forget, the 1776 independence America experienced left the Anglican community departing for England or Canada because of their sworn alliance to the Queen.

Add a couple of generations of the poorly taught men and women to raise their children in a much further diminished spirit of what Christ may have brought along with him when he crossed over the horizon of this world and I wonder less where everything ended up. The years between 1790 and 1840 gave us this great big snooze known as the Second Great Awakening.

Why I saw no mentioning of the year without a summer and the mass exodus from New England and eventually more settlements into the expansion including the western states, I don't know.

viewtopic.php?f=7&t=52227&sid=29ab95582c0374c94b5f86f2cebb8816#p130722

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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Fri Jun 02, 2017 2:06 pm
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Rust's text is rather "eye opening." It makes too much sense not to have a certain validity about it.

The chapters are interesting:


1. Early Mormons: A Peculiar People

2. Ancestors of Early LDS Converts

3. The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony

4. Puritan Ancestors in Massachusetts and Maine

5. Puritan Ancestors in Connecticut

6. Schismatic New England

7. The Antinomian Crisis

8. Anabaptists, Quakers and Gortonists

9. LDS Ancestors Engaged in Alchemy and Astrology

10. Witchcraft among LDS Ancestors

11. Generational Connections

12 Ancestors of the American Religions


I'll pop out excerpts from the text as I have time.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sat Jun 03, 2017 11:38 am
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Chapter One, p. 5-6

John Brooke claims that hermeticism had little to do with the early Puritans coming to New England; rather, it arrived with the migration of the second wave of immigrants coming to America, particularly to the Middle Atlantic colonies...Brooke agrees that Mormonism is connected with early New England, and he observes that this presents a "paradox" for his analysis in that the occult phenomena he connects with Mormons "must have taken a different route than that through a Puritan culture in orthodox New England"
However, my data clearly indicate that almost all of the thousands of ancestors of early LDS converts had settled New England during the first migration and were already established before the second wave of migrants arrived and dispersed throughout New York and the Middle Atlantic colonies.
I argue that there was a different type of religious radicalism among the LDS ancestors than that identified by Brooke as hermeticism and occultism. These ancestors had indeed settled in New England, but they constituted a radical fringe element in a Puritan landscape. And they came to live in parts of New England where they might escape the Puritan influence and give expression to a more radical spirit, one characterized by a belief that miracles and direct spiritual communication with God were open to all, rather than only to those who possessed specialized "hermetic" knowledge of magic practices and specialized occult ritual.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sat Jun 03, 2017 2:52 pm
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Chapter One, p. 12-16

Whitney Cross notes that the early LDS Church members were not "frontier people" in the usual sense of the term; rather, they were recent migrants to western upstate New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio who felt more comfortable in stable, settled communities and yearned for a life comparable to that on the "civilized" east coast. I have identified three groups of early Mormon converts. The first were members who converted during the New York--Pennsylvania period. The second were members who had initially been part of utopian societies and were living in Pennsylvania, New York or Ohio. . The third group were members who converted while still living in New England.

The first category of early members had migrated to western New York and northeastern Pennsylvania prior to the establishment of the LDS Church, mainly because of economic difficulties where they had lived in New England. These were approximately 140 of the first converts.

The second category of members consisted of converts who had migrated west, intent on joining or establishing utopian communities. There were many such utopian groups at the time , including religious organization s such as the Shakers, Rappists, Oneida Community, Hopedale Community, Amana Society, and Disciple of Christ (Campbellites), as well as secular communal groups such as those of Francois Fourier and Robert Owen.

The third category of the earliest Mormon converts were in the majority; they came into the church while still living in upstate eastern New York or New England. After they joined the LDS Church, they migrated west to join the main body of the Saints, which had moved to Ohio. Brigham Young's family is a good example of this third category. The Young family had resided in New England for many generations, but in 1832, after they were baptized, they too migrated to Ohio.


Chapter One, p. 17-18

Migration data shown in table 2 suggest that early LDS converts differed dramatically from the general population of New York and Ohio. The population of New York State was relatively stable at the time the LDS Church was organized. That is most residents of New York had been born in the state (57 percent), and only 20 percent of the population were migrants from New England. But only 27 percent of LDS converts were native to New York, and 59 percent had migrated from New England.
In contrast to the residents of New York, most Ohio residents, including the LDS converts, had been born outside Ohio and had recently migrated to the state. But LDS converts again differed from the rest of the population. Ohio residents were more likely to have come from the Middle Atlantic (30 percent) and South (16 percent) than from New England (9 percent). Although few Ohio residents were born in New England, most converts (61 percent) were. Ohio settlers outran organized churches in moving west, but "many were earnest and some were zealous in religious matters." Those from the Middle Atlantic and South identified themselves as Baptists, Presbyterian, and Methodist. Many had been infused with the spirit of the First Great Awakening. Methodist evangelists, for example, in their frontier camp meetings encouraged outpourings of "physical display and emotional release" and manifestations of "heavenly love."

In addition, European-born immigrants were well represented in both New York (20 percent) and Ohio (18 percent). The New York foreign immigrants came largely from continental Europe, and the Ohio immigrants, from the United Kingdom. In contrast, almost no LDS converts were foreign-born (2 percent), and those born out of the country were almost all from Canada.

In summary, early LDS converts were a distinctive population in both New York and Ohio.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sun Jun 11, 2017 11:52 am
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Chapter Two, p.22-3

If those who joined the LDS Church in its first years were infused with family traditions resonating with the proclamation that the church of Jesus Christ was to be restored through divine intervention, they had already been prepared to accept Joseph Smith's basic message. Almost all of them could claim a heritage of shared, radical, spiritual experiences largely in harmony with that message. All the converts were part of a long family and community history that bound them together in a shared life experience of intense spiritual outpourings, spiritual gifts, and divine connections. In addition, the early LDS converts' distinct religious orientation was so strong that it can be validated empiraclly over several generations.

Chapter Two, p. 24-5

In order to lend substance to these data, let us examine the pedigree chart of Lucy Mack (1775-1856), the mother of Joseph Smith Jr...

Among Lucy's Mack's known fifth generation ancestors, three special and sometimes overlapping clusters are noteworthy. First, some of them were children and grandchildren of Pilgrims who came to America on the Mayflower, such as Joh Howland Jr, who was the son of passengers John Howland and Elizabeth Tillie. John Howland Sr (1602-72/73) was a servant of John Carver, the first governor of Plymouth; Elizabeth accompanied her parents, John Tillie and Joan Hurst, on the initial Pilgrim voyage. Her parents died that winter in Plymouth. Samuel Fuller, another ancestor, was the son of Mayflower passenger Edward Fuller.
The second cluster of Mack ancestors belonged to the congregation of John Lathrop (1584-1653), the Separatist minister who settled Barnstable, in Plymouth colony, with his congregation in 1638-39. Lathrop and his congregation had languished for two years in prison in London before being released on condition that they leave England. The daughter of John Lathrop, Jane, married Samuel, the son of Mayflower passenger Edward Fuller. Other Mack forebears in Lathrop's congegation include John Crocker and Mary Lee.
The third cluster of ancestors, Henry Champion, Lewis Jones, And Balthazar de Wolf, were members of a congregation that traveled together to Connecticut to settle Wethersfield, one of the first communities in the colony. They were among a large number of LDS forerunners who belonged to that religiously radical congregation.


Chapter Two p.26-7

Early New England had quite different social and religious orientations than either the Middle Atlantic region or the South. On one hand, it was populated almost entirely by people who had come to America for deeply religious purposes. They settled mainly in small towns throughout the colonies where, many believe, America's democratic tradition originated. On the other hand, the Middle Atlantic region was more diverse. Religious refugees populated part of the region, but their concerns were generally different from those of settlers in New England; these immigrants arrived in America after 1660, and they often came from continental Europe, particularly Dutch and German speaking areas. The South was settled for economic reasons, and its population was located on plantations and farms rather than in towns.
New England was never dominant in population; only about 30 percent of the people of colonial America lived in New England; Virginia contained more inhabitants than all New England colonies combined. But few early Mormons and their ancestors came from the Middle Atlantic region and the South, and those who came from New York generally lived in the northeastern part of the state and shared New England's cultural history.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sun Jun 11, 2017 1:11 pm
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Chapter Two, p. 27-9

When placed in the context of the general New England population, the raw number of fifth generation ancestors from that region is striking. In order to show how the ancestors of early Mormons were similar to or different from other early settlers in New England, a measuring rod must be established for comparison. I use the year 1650 in many of my comparisons, choosing this date because it is close to the mean, mode, and median dates of birth of that fifth generation.

The U.S. Bureau of the Census estimates that approximately 22,800 English were in New England by 1650.

In table 5 we find the distribution of fifth-generation LDS ancestors in New England. Strikingly, they were overrepresented in Plymouth Colony, Connecticut, and Rhode Island and underrepresented in Massachusetts Bay Colony. However 15.2 percent of the Massachusetts population, 28.9 percent of the Connecticut population, 39.3 percent of the Rhode Island population, and an astounding 43.6 percent of Plymouth Colony population were fifth-generation ancestors of LDS converts. But it is the individual New England towns that provide the most revealing account of the progenitors.

The values reflected in the town and its congregation defined in many ways how these people saw the world. The prescribed standards applied to everyone, including ministers, merchants, farmers, sailors, youth and the elderly. No perfect equality was expected of a town's residents. While in Europe a great gulf separated leaders from peasants and the poor, no similar gulf was to be found in New England. All worked together and saw each other on a daily basis. They were all subject to the same moral code. Town life was a totality, apparently without seams. All aspects of life--work, religion, recreation, and play--were woven together. Family life itself was bound up with community life. The typical New England town was emerging as the American way of life, particularly its democratic traditions.

Writing of Massachusetts, Sumner Chilton Powell notes that "each town was, in a real sense, a little commonwealth." The residents determined who would live in the town and who would not. They established its laws and regulations. The town's church was heart of religious expression and observance.

By the mid-seventeenth century, almost three hundred [300] towns were to be found in New England. They ranged from small hamlets of a few families to Boston, which was at least five times larger than any other town in New England, counting 14,300 souls by 1664. At midcentury, most were still located along the seacoast, though some movement inland was beginning to take place.

In my exploration of the roots of early Mormon converts, the individual New England town became a focal point. Even through LDS ancestors constituted such a large portion of New England population, they were not evenly distributed across the New England colonies. Among the hundreds of towns, approximately 29 percent (2555) of all fifth-generation ancestors were born in only ten towns, with almost half (3991) born in only 20, and more than 57 percent (5300) born in 30 towns.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Mon Jun 12, 2017 5:27 pm
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Chapter 3, p. 42

Significant numbers of early LDS converts are tied to those very first English refugees who migrated to New England. At least 62 of the 583 converts in this study have direct-line ancestors who arrived on the Mayflower. The large number is especially significant because more than half of the 102 Mayflower passengers died that first winter, and several other "adventurers" returned to England within a short time. John Landis has determined that there are only 22 heads of household from the Mayflower from whom all subsequent descent can be traced without duplication, and early LDS convert lines can be traced back to at least 15 of these 22 heads of household. Of the 62 LDS converts connected with Mayflower ancestors, only 15 were related to the "strangers" or adventurers, while the other 47 were related to the Pilgrim Saints. The number of Pilgrim ancestors of LDS converts would multiply if we were to engage in a similar analysis of those who arrived on the Fortune and Anne in the years following.

The ratio of ancestors to inhabitants was higher in Plymouth than in any other colony of New England. While less than 7 percent of the people of New England were living in Plymouth Colony, more than 14 percent of the fifth-generation ancestors were from that colony.


Chapter 3, p. 45-7

A total of 119 fifth-generation progenitors have been identified who were born in Barnstable; 65 names are unique. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Barnstable was a relatively small village, and a majority of the residents were LDS ancestors. This means that the ratio of ancestors to residents was higher in Barnstable than in Plymouth Colony in general, which itself was the highest among the colonies in New England.

The spiritual leader of the Barnstable congregation, John Lathrop, has been identified as an ancestor of a host of early LDS leaders, including Frederick G Williams, Oliver Crowdery, Wilford Woodruff, Joseph Smith Jr and his brothers and sisters (through Lucy Mack), as well as Orson and Parley Parker Pratt. Lathrop was also an ancestor of a significant number of other converts.

The attacks on the part of the Massachusetts Bay churches and internal dissension contributed to Lathrop's decision to remove his group from Scituate and to settle, in October 1639, in what became known as Barnstable. Baptism, a major issue that divided the Puritans, Separatists, and radical spiritualists, contributed to Lathrop's decision to leave Scituate, but controversy over baptism continued in the town even after his congregation had departed.

The world of the Separatists is well represented by the congregation of John Lathrop. He was clearly radical in many of his doctrinal positions, but sometimes members of his congregation were more doctrinaire than he was himself. His was a tempered radicalism, particularly the way he tolerated differences of opinion and accepted every applicant to membership in congregation without demanding a signature of creed or confession of faith. The only requirements were that the applicant "endeavor to keep His commandments, to live a pure life, and to walk in love with the brethren.

Barnstable, situated on Cape Cod, was isolated from . the rest of New England, and its location allowed Lathrop, who was a man of "deep piety, great zeal and large ability," to stabilize his congregation and build the foundations of a spiritual communal utopia. He died in Barnstable in 1653, but the town's isolation allowed it to retain its spiritual orientation for generations.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Mon Jun 12, 2017 7:37 pm
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Chapter 5, p. 62

A high concentration of fifth-generation ancestors of the early LDS converts was to be found in Puritan Connecticut. While the ratio of LDS ancestors to general inhabitants was not as high as in Plymouth Colony, it was substantial. In 1650, there were only some 4100 inhabitants in Connecticut, about 18 percent of the New England population, but at least 27 percent of the LDS ancestors so far identified were from that colony.

From another perspective, almost one-third of the Connecticut population at that time were fifth-generation ancestors of early LDS converts, more than our overall finding that one-fifth of the New England population were ancestors. From yet another perspective, at least 309 (53 percent) LDS converts in this study could claim at least one fifth-generation ancestor from Connecticut.


Chapter 5, p. 65

At least twenty-eight of the fifty-five original heads of household who arrived in Hartford in 1635 were ancestors of LDS converts, including such early leaders of the LDS Church as members of the first Quorum of Apostles, Orson and Parley Pratt, the first bishop, Edward Partridge Sr and the apostle and eventual LDS president, Wilford Woodruff. As dissension developed in the Hartford congregation, the ancestors were not all aligned with any particular faction.

Chapter 5, p. 66-67

In October 1635, the same year Hooker settled in Hartford, the Reverend John Warham brought a flock of about sixty souls to establish a town just north of Hartford, which they named Windsor. Warham had graduated from Oxford in 1614 and went immediately into church service at Exeter, where he became an "eminent minister." In 1627, he was relieved of his duties for his strong Puritan leanings, and when John Winthrop formed the Massachusetts Bay Company, Warham and many of his congregation were among the first to sign on.

The Mary and John, which set sail in March of 1630, was first of the ships in the Winthrop fleet to land in Massachusetts. About 60 of the 140 passengers were from Warham's Exeter parish. It was still winter when the ship arrived and the passengers survived mainly through the generosity of Indians who brought them corn, clothing and knives. The members of the parish founded the town of Dorchester, just south of Boston, and they remained there until 1635, when Warham's congregation, seeking more fertile lands and a less hectic political environment, migrated to Connecticut.

Of the twenty-three heads of household who traveled with Warham from Dorchester to Windsor, seventeen, an astounding 74 percent, were forebears of at least forty-three LDS converts, which means that many were ancestors of several converts. Warham himself was an ancestor of several converts.

At midcentury, fifteen years after Warham arrived in Connecticut, the town of Windsor was smaller than Hartford but had almost an equal number of fifth-generation ancestors. Thus, more LDS ancestors were born in Windsor than in Hartford. No less than 81 of the 583 LDS converts in our study had fifth-generation relatives born there. Among the well-known leaders of the LDS Church, including Apostles W. W. Phelps, Luke Johnson and Orson Hyde, Lucy Mack, the mother of the prophet Joseph Smith Jr; Polly Peck; Bishop Edward Partridge Sr; the apostle and eventual church president, Lorenzo Snow; and many others.

Wethersfield was a relatively small town at midcentury, claiming about a third as many residents as Hartford or Windsor. However, at least 154 fifth-generation ancestors were born in the settlement, indicating that a high proportion of the town were LDS ancestors. Some of them were ancestors of well-known LDS converts, including Apostle Orson Hyde, Bishop Edward Partridge Sr, Counselor to the President Frederick G Williams, apostle and eventual president Wilford Woodruff, and the Joseph Smith Jr and Brigham Young families.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Thu Jun 15, 2017 6:43 pm
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Chapter 6, p. 74-5

Before Roger Williams was expelled from Massachusetts in 1635, at least nineteen people had been thrown out of New England towns. Rhode Island and New Hampshire became the two most likely places of refuge. Significantly, a high concentration of LDS ancestors lived in the areas where the extreme radicals settled. At least 39 percent of the estimated population of Rhode Island at midcentury has been identified so far as direct-line, fifth-generation ancestors of LDS converts. From another vantage point, more than 40 percent of the early LDS converts in this study have ancestors from the small colony of Rhode Island. We find that 38 percent of the population living in New Hampshire (if we include Essex County, Massachusetts, which directly borders New Hampshire and which shared such political and cultural affinity) were direct-line, fifth-generation ancestors.


Chapter 6, p. 80-81

The total number of identified fifth-generation LDS ancestors from what is today New Hampshire was 188, 120 of whom have unique names; this represents about 9 percent of the midcentury population. Because about one-fifth of the entire population of New England were fifth-generation LDS ancestors, New Hampshire was underrepresented in terms of Mormon ancestors. They were clustered in three towns: 75 from Hampton, 24 from Exeter and 38 from Portsmouth.
In 1632, one of the earliest groups of dissidents more radical than the Puritans and pilgrims to arrive in Massachusetts was led by Stephen Bachiler (1561-1660/1), a seventy-one-year-old minister. He declared the group to be Puritans, but they inclined so towards Familism that Boston's leaders considered them too radical to remain in town. Bachiler and his small band of faithful sought peace by migrating first to Lynn, then Yarmouth, and then Newbury. They finally left Massachusetts and in 1638 settled the town of Hampton, north of the Merrimack River, beyond the northern boundary of The Massachusetts Bay Colony in the fertile lands of coastal New Hampshire. Bachiler is said to have given the town its name.
The Familists (Family of Love) were followers of the Dutch mystic Hendrik Niclaes (1502-80) who had established his church in the 1540's. The movement had come to England by the 1570s, when a number of Niclaes's works were revised and translated into English. Niclaes wrote that the church of Christ had fallen from the truth, and a veil had descended between God and his people: "The spirit was replaced by the flesh," according to Alastair Hamilton, "the Scriptures read as a dead letter, the ceremonies, and sacraments of the Church observed out of superstition." His was intended to be a universal religion, and all people, whether Christian, Jew, Mohammedan, or heathen, were invited to give up their contention over theological dogma and join together in the body of Christ.
Niclaes claimed he had been anointed by God to become his medium in restoring a relationship between the divine and humankind. He claimed to have received a number of vivid and dramatic spiritual visions that provided the insight necessary to fulfill scriptural prophesies relating to the restoration of the true gospel. His Family of Love was thought to be a community capable of breaking the veil between the heavens and the earth. Familists identified themselves as a fraternity or fellowship, signifying powerful feelings of cohesion and mutual support in Christ. The group grew quickly in the fertile soil of England, but it experienced a brief life and died by the 1660s. Certain Familists appeared in other American colonies, and they presaged the universalists of the eighteenth century.
The treatment Familists received by established religious institutions in England typify the difficulties encountered by radical religious communities. Church ministers delivered many sermons against the Family of Love and its doctrines of inclusion, opponents wrote pamphlets, describing them in derogatory terms. They were given the label of a "sect," signifying a group that was subversive to the social order. In 1580, Queen Elizabeth issued a proclamation ordering these "dangerous Heretikes and Sectaries to be severely punished." Public officials regularly interrogated them and threw many into prison. Eventually, the members were either incorporated into a new movement arising in England, the Quakers, or they left England to seek peace abroad.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sun Jun 25, 2017 2:09 pm
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Chapter 8, p. 110-11

The number of Quakers in northern New England grew faster than the population. Quaker activity occurred in New Hampshire, Maine, and Essex County, Massachusetts. Puritans reacted by harshly persecuting anyone engaged in Quaker affairs. A number of Salem ancestors of LDS converts were targets of persecution. The Wardell family is a good case in point. In 1664, Eliakin Wardell, a son of Thomas Wardell of Hampton, New Hampshire, and nephew of William Wardell, was fined for entertaining a Quaker missionary and for engaging in disruptive behavior. His wife, for example, had completely disrupted a Newbury congregation by going naked into the meetinghouse in an attempt to shame the Puritans for stripping women to the waist and whipping them through the center of towns.
In New Hampshire, LDS ancestors sympathetic with Quakerism were also badly treated by resident Puritans. At Dover, where Quakers visited in the winter of 1662, Thomas Roberts, the former governor of the town and an ancestor of several LDS converts, recommended giving them a fair hearing. However, the Dover church enforced the rules coming out of Massachusetts and stripped to the waist Anna Coleman, Mary Tomkins, and Alice Ambrose, three Quaker Women, tying them to the back of a horse-drawn cart and whipping them with ten lashes as they passed through each township on the way to Boston.

During the summer of 1659 a number of people from Hampton, New Hampshire, visited Nantucket as a possible place to settle and decided to organize a group to but all rights and interest in the island. Later, Nantucket became a focal point of Quaker activity. Members of the group founding Nantucket include LDS ancestors Tristram Coffin Sr, Peter Coffin, Richard Swaine, John Swaine, Christopher Hussey and Stephen Greenleaf. Several LDS converts, including Samuel Jones Rolfe, Mary Thurston Rand, Lydia Chamberlain and Dwight Harding, could trace their direct-line ancestry to one or more of these individuals.


Last edited by pettifogger on Thu Jun 29, 2017 12:13 pm, edited 2 times in total.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sun Jun 25, 2017 2:52 pm
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Chapter 8, p. 111-13

Gortonists were followers of Samuel Gorton (1592-1677), who was called at various times an "arch-heretic," a "beast," a "miscreant," a "proud and pestilent seducer," and a "prodigious minter of exhorbitant novelties." Though he never identified himself with the Family of Love, he was often regarded as a Familist, because both he and they "believed in mystical communion with the holy Spirit."

While his prose style has been described as "relatively inaccessible" to those of us not living in his time and place, it does provide glimpses of how his theology came into direct conflict with the most fundamental tenets of mainstream Puritanism. For example, he challenged the prevailing notion of trinitarianism, which since the Nicene Creed was adopted in A.D. 325, had dictated that God, Christ and the Holy Ghost were "of one essence." He characterized this as "a most dangerous and pernicious doctrine," a creed that rejected the simple afct that Jesus was human in form and had been resurrected in human form. His beliefs about the Godhead helped open the way to challenges against the trinitarianism that had dominated Christianity for thirteen centuries.
One aspect of Gortonism that conicides with Mormonism was his claim that there is an essential divine spark in human nature. every human soul is said to possess that spark; it is neither created nor will it pass away. It is eternal and everlasting. There is an indwelling divinity found in all people.
Gorton also anticipated Mormon dualist theology in his belief that good and evil are in eternal conflict: good tending toward eternal life, evil toward eternal damnation. Gorton claimed, as do Mormons, there is no single arbitrary event upon which people will be judged. The good and evil weigh intrinsically and naturally on every action. Righteousness is movement in the direction of life eternal, while sin is movement toward damnation. All humankind participates in a continuous, eternal flow of moments, and the "now' is one moment of eternal existence. Gorton did not look for some future condition so much as strive to attain the heavenly in every action and decision. He believed heaven is not so much a place as a condition of the soul.

Gorton's direct-line descendants among early LDS converts included Celinda and Lydia Ackerman and Lebbeus T. Coons Sr. While Gorton's first disciple, John Wickes, who followed him from Plymouth, does not appear to have had descendants among early LDS converts, other disciples do. Gortonist John Greene Sr, the first of along line of important Greene leaders of Rhode Island, was an ancestor of a number of early converts. Greene was a highly educated surgeon who probably arrived in Massachusetts in 1636 and removed to Providence, where he lived with his three wives and five children from his first wife, Joanne Tattershall.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Sun Jun 25, 2017 3:31 pm
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Chapter 9, p. 126

I have no evidence that the LDS ancestors relied on astrology more than other New Englanders in selecting marriage dates. But it is likely that those who lived in the context of a radical religious tradition were incorporating astrology into their decision making for a much longer time than the general populaton, even as late as the nineteenth century. Among early Mormons, Joseph Smith's family members were greatly interested in astrology. They owned a magic dagger inscribed with Mars and magic parchments inscribed with astrological sysmbols, and Joseph Smith married all of his wives on days that coincided with favorable astrological signs. However, it would be a mistake to connect these activities with occult practices that extended beyond the boundaries of the beliefs and practices common to those living in the American colonies during the period of the Second Great Awakening.


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2017 12:08 pm
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Chapter 10, p. 129-30

Where mainstream Puritanism monopolized the population, such as in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, or where there was little mainstream Puritan presence and Separatism or religious radicalism dominated, such as in Plymouth Colony, Rhode Island and New London, Connecticut, charges of witchcraft and witchcraft trials rarely or never occurred. But in areas dominated by Puritans where there was also a strong presence of radical spiritualism, such as New Hampshire, in Essex County, Massachusetts, and in most of the counties of Connecticut, witchcraft trials occurred more often. It should be no surprise that witchcraft trials took place where tension between religious radicals and mainstream Puritans were part of everyday life.

A significant number of the ancestors of early LDS converts were accused of involvement with witchcraft prior to the Salem delusion. The ancestors were not only among the accused but also among the accusers claiming to have witnessed witches exercising special satanic powers from the invisible world. In other words, some LDS ancestors were indicted and convicted of witchcraft while others were involved in charging or convicting. It is not clear whether the accused or the accusers in the witchcraft were prone to radical and mystical beliefs, but the two sides of the controversy suggest there was widespread belief in the practice. Clearly, accusing someone of witchcraft implies the accuser believes in witches.

Chapter 10, p.134-35

Even though many LDS ancestors were accused of witchcraft, there were also many accusers among them. Jonathan Walcott and Nathaniel Ingersoll, ancestors of some LDS converts, were among the accusers, submitting a number of formal complaints. Walcott was involved in at least nineteen accusations, and Ingersoll in at least thirteen. Members of the Putnam family, also LDS ancestors, were also active in bringing formal complaints for witchcraft. Thomas and Edward Putnam were responsible for no less than forty-eight complaints against their neighbors. Clearly, they believed in the spirit world and in witches who had easy access to that world.

The fourth person accused in the Salem witchcraft delusion was Rebecca Nurse, a citizen of Essex county and a direct line ancestor of several LDS converts. Her neighbors vainly signed a petition that she "had brought up a great family of children and educated them well, so that there is in some of them [the] apparent savor of godliness." In spite of this effort, Rebecca Nurse was executed.

Another case involved John Proctor, his wife Elizabeth, and their young son William, all LDS forebears. One witness against John Proctor was Joseph Bayley, the brother-in-law of Thomas and Edward Putnam. Bayley explained that he was riding on horseback with his wife in the sight of Proctor house near Ipswich when he felt two hard blows to the midsection of his body, "which caused great pain in my stomach and amazement in my head." In spite of thirty-one neighbors signing of a petition questioning the legitimacy of such evidence, the Proctors were held responsible for these blows. This and similar evidence led to the execution of John Proctor and his wife. Their son William was never executed, although authorities attempted to extract a confession from him and two others by tying "Neck and Heals till the Blood was ready to come out their Noses."


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pettifogger
Post  Post subject: Re: Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonia  |  Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2017 12:12 pm
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Chapter 10, p. 139

The importance of familial connections in spiritual radicalism must always be kept in mind. We conclude that significant numbers of LDS convert ancestors defied the demands of Puritan leaders that they refrain from spiritualist activities, instead, they insisted that they and others had received special gifts or possessed special powers from the invisible world.


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